Category Archives: EDUprotocols

Claim – Evidence – Reasoning Data

My students have been practicing their reasoning skills with CER. Every day at the end of their independent reading, they record their page numbers, summarize what they have learned, and identify one claim of fact, policy, or value. A student sample is pictured below.

This 10th grade World History student could improve their reasoning by explaining the value-laden terms in their evidence. The principal uses the word good, which makes me think this is an opinion. Therefore, it is not a claim of fact, which can be proven or disproven. Nor is it a claim of policy that has a recommendation or represents an institution. This claim of value requires an adjective, which the principal includes.

On average, students improved their CER proficiency rates according to the following table. You can see that progress wasn’t constant and results ebbed and flowed. I attribute this to my coaching style. The first rep was difficult and after direct instruction every class made progress. Then the next day I upped my expectations that students would be able to follow the quote-cite-explain format I asked for. Many didn’t and the results waned. After additional instruction using a think-aloud, glows and grows model and these examples, results went up again.

CERDay 1Day 2Day 3Day 4N=
P13588716017
P22154295414
P65060555522
10th gr AVG3267525653
P41836466428

I have learned that students need multiple reps in multiple classes if we are going to improve academic writing overall. My AP Lang teacher structures this differently, as does our AP Chemistry teacher, but the magic happens when the three of us get in the room and look at student work together. By making this a recursive assignment in all of our classes, we can improve student writing.

Leave a comment about the recursive assignments that happen at your school site. My students do an annotated bibliography twice per semester in each academic class. That, along with the consistent use of claims, evidence, and reasoning in multiple classes is helping our students build their confidence in college level work.